Partner study description
Guinea Bissau samples were collected from three sites in October 2010 by indoor CDC light traps. Safim (11.957, -15.649) and Antula (11.891, -15.582), from a south-western coastal region, characterised mainly by mixed flooded forests and croplands. Leibala is a neighbourhood of the eastern town of Gabu where shrubland and open deciduous forest predominate (12.272, -14.222). According to PCR-RFLP of the IGS (1) and SINEX (2) all samples were identified as An. gambiae. The kdr pyrethroid target site resistance mutation L995F occurs at high frequency in Leibala but at very low frequency in the western coastal region (3). Malaria is meso-hyperendemic (4) and sporozoite rates are below 1% in the region. Specimens were stored on silica gel and DNA extraction was performed by a phenol-chloroform protocol described in (5).
For further details of this study see Vicente et al (3).
1. C. Fanello, F. Santolamazza, and A. della Torre. Simultaneous identification of species and molecular forms of the anopheles gambiae complex by pcr-rflp. Med Vet Entomol, 16:461–464, December 2002. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2002.00393.x
2. F. Santolamazza, A. della Torre, and A. Caccone. Short report: a new polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to identify anopheles arabiensis from an. gambiae and its two molecular forms from degraded dna templates or museum samples. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 70:604–6, July 2004. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.604
3. J.L. Vicente, C.S. Clarkson, B. Caputo, B. Gomes, M. Pombi, C.A. Sousa, T. Antao, J. DInis, G. Bottà, E. Mancini, V. Petrarca, D. Mead, E. Drury, J. Stalker, A. Miles, D.P. Kwiatkowski, M.J. Donnelly, A. Rodrigues, A.D. Torre, D. Weetman, and J. Pinto. Massive introgression drives species radiation at the range limit of Anopheles gambiae. Sci. Rep., April 2017. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46451
4. A. P. Arez, V. E. Do Rosário, K. Pålsson, T. G. T. Jaenson, G. Snounou, and J. Pinto. Transmission of mixed plasmodium species and plasmodium falciparum genotypes. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 68:161–168, February 2003. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.2.0680161
5. M. J. Donnelly, N. Cuamba, J. D. Charlwood, F. H. Collins, and H. Townson. Population structure in the malaria vector, anopheles arabiensis patton, in east africa. Heredity, 83:408–417, October 1999. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6885930
Amabélia Rodrigues Instituto Nacional de Saaúde Paública, Ministaério da Saaúde Paública, Bissau, Guinaé-Bissau
João Dinis Instituto Nacional de Saaúde Paública, Ministaério da Saaúde Paública, Bissau, Guinaé-Bissau
Marco Pombi Istituto Pasteur Italia–Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Università di Roma SAPIENZA, Rome, Italy.
Beniamino Caputo (beniamino.caputo [at] uniroma1.it) Istituto Pasteur Italia–Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Università di Roma SAPIENZA, Rome, Italy.
João Pinto (jpinto [at] ihmt.unl.pt) Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL, Rua da Junqueira 100, 1349–008 Lisbon, Portugal.