NEW: Vector genomics fellows... more
Ag3.9: Anopheles gambiae data resource

Released on 9 Apr 2024.


The MalariaGEN Vector Observatory Anopheles gambiae data resource version 3.9 (Ag3.9) contains single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calls, copy number variant (CNV) calls and SNP haplotypes from whole-genome sequencing of mosquitoes collected in Angola (8), Benin (11), Burkina Faso (7), Cameroon (87), Equatorial Guinea (9), Ethiopia (273), Gabon (288), Guinea Bissau (14), Kenya (373), Madagascar (10), Mali (30), Sao Tome and Principe (31), South Africa (127), Tanzania (14), The Gambia (2193), The Union of the Comoros (35), Uganda (113), Zambia (6) and Zimbabwe (10) from 1988 to 2022. Ag3.9 contains 3639 whole genome sequences from An. coluzzi, An. arabiensis, An. melas, An. merus, An. quadriannulatus and An. gambiae.

This release includes openly-available data from three literature studies:

Bergey C. M., Lukindu M., Wiltshire R. M., et al. Assessing connectivity despite high diversity in island populations of a malaria mosquito. Evol Appl 13(2): 417-431 (2019).

Campos M, Hanemaaijer M, Gripkey H, et al. The origin of island populations of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii. Commun Biol 4(1): 630 (2021).

Lanzaro GC, Campos M, Crepeau M, et al. Selection of sites for field trials of genetically engineered mosquitoes with gene drive. Evol Appl 14(9): 2147-2161 (2021).

Data sets

Ag3.9 Contributing Studies

1270 – Pan-African Malaria Genetic Epidemiology Network (PAMGEN) Anopheles gambiae samples

1274 – PAMCA Anopheles genomics programme – Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis genetic diversity and association with insecticide resistance in Kenya

1280 – PAMCA Anopheles genomics programme – Genetic structuring in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis and implication on vector control in South Africa

1281 – PAMCA Anopheles genomics programme – Malaria vector surveillance, population genetics and insecticide resistance characterization in four eco-epidemiological settings in Cameroon

1323 – Anopheles gambiae vector surveillance in The Gambia

1329 – PAMCA Anopheles genomics programme – Anopheles gambiae vector surveillance in Gabon

Ag3.9 Terms of Use

Data from this project will be made publicly available before journal publication. Unless otherwise stated, analyses of project data are ongoing and publications are in preparation by project partners, and it is not permitted to use project data for publication (including any type of communication with the general public) without prior permission from the originating partner studies.

Although malaria is generally an endemic rather than an epidemic disease, and the focus of this project is on surveillance of disease vectors rather than pathogens, our data terms of use build on MalariaGEN’s approach to data sharing, and adopt norms which have been established for rapid sharing of pathogen genomic data during disease outbreaks. The primary rationale for this approach is that malaria remains a public health emergency, where ethically appropriate and rapid sharing of genomic surveillance data can help to detect and respond to biological threats such as new forms of insecticide resistance, and to adapt malaria vector control strategies to different settings and changing circumstances.

If you have any questions regarding these terms of use, please contact

Ag3.9 Data Access

Please visit the release page on the vector data guide to find out more about how to access the data.

Ag3.9 Sample Locations

Mosquitoes were collected from 69 locations across Angola (1 location), Benin (2 locations), Burkina Faso ( 1 location), Cameroon ( 6 locations), Equatorial Guinea (1 location), Ethiopia (1 location), Gabon (3 locations), Guinea Bissau (1 location), Kenya (5 locations), Madagascar (1 location), Mali (2 locations), Sao Tome and Principe (2 locations), South Africa (3 locations), Tanzania (3 locations), The Gambia (22 locations), The Union of the Comoros (7 locations), Uganda (6 locations), Zambia (1 location) and Zimbabwe (1 location).